Thursday, July 21, 2016

Blohm & Voss BV 155 Interceptor

Too Many Changes, Too Little Time

Blohm and Voss Bv 155
The Blohm & Voss BV 155 Interceptor.

As the war entered its middle phase, Allied air attacks became a huge concern for the German high command. It wasn't so much that they were destroying valuable facilities and killing German civilians - which they most certainly were - but that they were relentless, the trend was toward increasing attacks, and there was no way to stop them. Something had to be done, and fast.

What followed was more a case study in corporate rivalry and changing priorities than aircraft design. The result was the Blohm & Voss BV 155 Interceptor, a promising fighter badly needed by the Germans but which never got into action due to mismanagement and constantly changing focus. It is useful to review designs that did not pan out to learn why - and there are a lot of easily-avoided reasons why the BV 155 project did not wind up contributing to the war effort.

Blohm & Voss Bv 155
The BV 155 was characterized by prominent outboard radiators.
The Messerschmitt company had begun work on a new fighter for naval use in 1942 which was designated Me 155. Due to the restrictions of the Versailles Treaty and Germany's traditional status as primarily a land power, the Kriegsmarine had absolutely no experience with aircraft carriers or fighters that could operate from them. The initial idea was just to use standard Bf 109s adapted for carrier use for a quickie solution, which made sense. This was easier said than done, for simply slapping a new undercarriage on the standard design did not suffice, so a completely new design was requested. For efficiency, the Messerschmitt designers worked up a new fighter design with a more powerful engine that basically was just an outgrowth of the superb Bf 109. This plan guided early development, but the entire theory behind the project collapsed as the work on the Kriegsmarine's aircraft carriers such as the Graf Zeppelin was gradually shut down in 1942-43.

Blohm and Voss Bv 155

By early 1943, the pressing need had switched from naval aircraft to blunting the Allied bomber swarm. The Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) decided to revamp the promising naval fighter design to its new need - high-altitude interception. Once again, this seemed like a quick solution, short-circuiting the long design and machining phase. Messerschmitt had placed the BV 155 on the back burner, but the RLM finally was beginning to realize that time was growing short. Thus, to speed it up, it shifted the project to the aircraft subsidiary of Blohm & Voss - which wasn't nearly as busy because, well, its own designs hadn't been as important to the war effort. So, not only the purpose behind the project changed, but so did the designers.

Blohm & Voss Bv 155

B&V had originated as a shipyard that had branched out into military aircraft production due to the German rearmament program of the 1930s. Its specialty was flying boat construction, which it did well due to its maritime experience. Perhaps one of the reasons the BV 155 project was given to B&V was because of the original naval connection - which, with the new goal of a land-based high-altitude interceptor, had disappeared completely. However, the project still had those bureaucratic associations. BV was the maritime aviation specialist and had people available to work up the design, even if they weren't really experts at this kind of plane.

Blohm & Voss Bv 155

The RLM, though, hedged its bets. The plane's further evolution was supposed to be a joint project between the two companies, and B&V needed the help because the project used so many Messerschmitt components. However, the Messerschmitt people resented losing the project and did the usual passive-aggressive things that show displeasure - missing meetings and so forth. By late 1943, the collaboration had collapsed completely, leaving B&V holding the bag. B&V finally decided just to eliminate a lot of Messerschmitt parts, such as the Bf 109 wings and canopy. The RLM accepted the changes, and the new designs certainly provided marginal improvements, but crafting new parts eliminated the efficiency of using off-the-shelf components. This stretched the project out, and time was not something the Germans had in abundance as bombs rained down on their cities and factories.

Blohm & Voss Bv 155

The BV 155 V1 flew for the first time on 1 September 1944. The outboard radiators from the Messerschmitt design proved too small, and after redesign (including the new canopy and larger rudder) the BV 155 V2 flew on 8 February 1945. The engine went through numerous changes, beginning with the  DB 605A-1 liquid-cooled engine of 1,475 PS (1,455 hp, 1,085 kW) and ending with the B&V DB 603U, with power of 1,238 kW (1,660 hp) for takeoff and 1,066 kW (1,430 hp) at 14,935 m (49,000 ft). It would have been competitive at higher altitudes with any fighter of the time aside perhaps from any jets that could reach there, but it was evolutionary, not revolutionary.

Maximum speed:
  • 420 km/h (261 mph; 227 knots) at sea level
  • 520 km/h (323 mph) at 6,000 m (19,685 ft)
  • 600 km/h (373 mph) at 10,000 m (32,808 ft)
  • 650 km/h (404 mph) at 12,000 m (39,370 ft)
  • 690 km/h (429 mph) at 16,000 m (52,493 ft)
The final design, the BV 155C, eliminated the distinctive wing-mounted radiators entirely, reverting the plane design basically to just another Bf 109 heavily adapted for high altitude interceptions. This just confirmed that the entire project had degenerated into a muddled mishmash of random ideas overtaken by changing technology and searching for any kind of final resolution. The BV 155's mission was not unique, and the Luftwaffe had other planes with similar capabilities in advanced stages of development that were more capable even at high altitude interception, such as the Focke-Wulf Ta 152. The need for a panacea defensive fighter was real, but the BV 155 was not the solution. What was supposed to be a quick solution to a relatively minor problem metamorphosed into an endless project with outdated technology, no clear need, and little idea of where it was going.

The project was stumbling toward a conclusion when the war ended. Even if it had entered service, the BV 155 may have been adequate for its limited purposes but never a war-winning design.

There is a rule of effective warfare taught in the military academies: "maintenance of the objective." You must decide what your objective is, and then achieve it without distractions. Adolf Hitler was guilty of violating this rule repeatedly, especially in the Soviet Union during 1941 and 1942, but the rule also applies equally well to non-combat situations. The BV 155 project is a classic example in the corporate sector of what happens when you fail to maintain your objective and start "winging it" on the fly.

Blohm & Voss Bv 155

BV 155

Crew: 1
Length: 12 m (39 ft 4 in)
Wingspan: 20.5 m (67 ft 3 in)
Height: 3 m (9 ft 10 in)
Wing area: 39 m2 (420 sq ft)
Empty weight: 4,870 kg (10,737 lb)
Gross weight: 5,100 - 5,520 kg (11,244 -12,170 lb) (depending on armament etc.)
Maximum projected takeoff weight: 6,020 kg (13,272 lb)
Fuel capacity: 1,200 l (264 imp gal)
Engine: 1 × Daimler-Benz DB 603A inverted V-12 liquid-cooled piston engine with TKL 15 turbo-charger, 1,200 kW (1,600 hp) for take-off
1,200 kW (1,609 hp) at 10,000 m (32,808 ft)
1,081 kW (1,450 hp) at 15,000 m (49,213 ft)
Propeller: 4-bladed constant speed paddle bladed propeller


Friday, July 15, 2016

Women of World War II

The backbone of the War Effort

pretty girls Marilyn Monroe

Because they don't get nearly enough credit and attention on sites like this, I am adding this page on Women of World War II.

My aim, as always, is not to be comprehensive. Nobody can do that with a group as large as women. Instead, I aim to give a flavor of women's involvement, one way or another, with the war effort.

The role of women in wartime is underestimated. They provide all the essential support services that keep the men fighting. Without female support, no war effort is going to survive for long, much less prevail. Women truly are the backbone of any successful wartime effort.

The opinions of women are not monolithic, and neither are their experiences. They are not all pacifist, or tender, or brutal, or anything. The experience of World War II proves for all time that women are aligned with the men of their culture, they just do different things. Not more or less important things - just different things. And, on occasion, the same things.

Okay, enough chatter, let's have a go.

pretty girls Ginni
"Ginni" (Pinterest/Leisa Shannon Art Studio).
I don't know who "Ginni" is/was, or why she was in Australia (those are US military insignia). Maybe she was a USO performer (that is a very professional shot) or just visiting (military fashions were very "in" during the war). More likely, Ginni was there in an official capacity. My source says she was a nurse, but who knows. Just because she says she was in Australia doesn't mean she actually was, nurses were all across the Pacific and likely would not be able to reveal their real location for security reasons. Whatever else she was... Ginni was magnificent.

pretty girls Roza Shanina

pretty girls Roza Shanina
Roza Shanina.
Roza Shanina was a sniper girl who served in the final two years of the war. Unfortunately, she was killed in early 1945 in East Prussia after killing over 50 Germans. The top photo looks too perfect to be from the 1940s, but it is identified as authentic everywhere I look and, until I learn otherwise, that is how I will treat it. And before you righteously claim that it is "impossible" for the top photo to be genuine, I can point you to many Life Magazine photos of the time that were just as good or even better (in fact, see some below). Roza was a big propaganda heroine during the war and would have had the absolute best photographic equipment available for posed shots. Anyway, even if you just rely on the second photo, you have to admit that Roza was amazing.

pretty girls Kyra Petrovskaya
Kyra Petrovskaya.
Kyra Petrovskaya also was a sniper girl, on the Leningrad front. Not only did she survive the war and later emigrate to the US, but she lived a full and successful life. Kyra passed away on June 3, 2018, in Kingston, Washington.

pretty girls Ilse Hirsch

pretty girls Ilse Hirsch
Ilse Hirsch.
Ilse Hirsch was a BDM Girl. She also was a committed Hitler loyalist who remained very supportive right to the end. After being featured in propaganda early in the war as in the top picture, Ilse continued to prove her loyalty until chosen for Operation Carnival in 1945. After completing that assassination, Ilse limped home on a bum leg and waited for the Allies to arrest her. She died early in the 21st Century. It is my personal opinion, shared by nobody else, that Ilse Hirsch was the inspiration for the character of Dara in the infamous Star Trek episode "Patterns of Force." Women fully supported the Hitler regime, and many also were wildly enthusiastic supporters of Adolf Hitler personally.

pretty girls Maria Dolina
Maria Dolina.
This is a bit of a solemn pose, but I still like this shot for its girl-next-door quality, earnest gaze, and the impeccable photography. Maria Dolina was a member of the Night Witches, the legendary all-female Soviet bomber group. She flew seventy-two missions bombing enemy ammunition depots, strong-points, tanks, artillery batteries, rail and water transports, and supporting Soviet ground troops. The group flew old biplanes, and one of their objectives was simply to be annoying and deprive the front-line Wehrmacht troops of sleep. At this, they were extremely successful, thus earning their nickname from the Germans (and other epithets which you can well imagine). On August 18, 1945, Maria Dolina was awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union, the highest honor anyone from the rank and file could receive.

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Who likes short-shorts?
BDM girls were forced to become physically fit, and wear short-shorts in the process. This looks like some sort of party rally.

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 I have no information on this young lady whatsoever. She is wearing an SS officer's uniform, but obviously, she was borrowing it from someone, perhaps her boyfriend or brother or, well, someone. Elsewhere on the Internet, she is identified as a "young girl," but she looks older than that to me. Whatever. Who, what, or when is unknown, but she represents the women who enthusiastically supported the SS and other extreme organizations. As a bonus, she apparently inspired a raft of Hollywood B-movies in the 1970s.

pretty girls Aleksandra Samusenko
Aleksandra Samusenko.
There were some women in the Soviet Red Army aside from snipers and Night Witches. Lt. Aleksandra Samusenko, a Soviet Ukrainian commander of a T-34 tank and a liaison officer during World War II, was the only female tank-man/person in the 1st Guards Tank Army during 1943.

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Unidentified Japanese girl.
I am cheating a bit here because this young lady did not (to my knowledge) participate in the war beyond living through it. In fact, this picture wasn't even taken during the war. This is from a Life Magazine spread showing the reality of the Japanese occupation published shortly after the war. Japanese women spent the conflict at home, facing gradually increasing privations. Many died in bombing raids, including nuclear explosions. It certainly seems right that a few should have had a little enjoyment afterward in the company of a dashing serviceman - even if it was against regulations.

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I include this shot just to honor all the lovely women who inspired plane nose art during the war. I have no idea who the happy lady was or what kind of plane that is. This was taken at the boneyard, and her days were numbered. But, she lives on here.

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Lyudmila Pavlichenko.
Lyudmila Pavlichenko was another Soviet sniper girl during World War II. A student at the outbreak of the warlike many other female snipers, Pavlichenko was among the first to volunteer for the armed forces when the Soviet Union was invaded. Rather than be a nurse, she chose to be a sniper and joined the 54th Infantry Regiment of the Red Army's 25th Rifle Division. With 309 kills, Pavlichenko is the most successful female sniper in history and one of the top ten overall. She achieved them all quickly, in less than a year, and then was pulled from combat due to her growing fame. Lyudmila earned the highest of honors, Hero of the Soviet Union, and passed away in 1974 at age 58.

Simone Segouin (nom de guerre Nicole Minet) with her MP 40 submachine gun, 23 Aug 1944 
Simone Segouin was known as Nicole Minet. She was a French Resistance fighter who served in the Francs-Tireurs et Partisans group. Simone reportedly killed several German snipers during the re-conquest of Paris in August 1944. It is rare to get a shot of a female partisan in action, and this looks fairly authentic for what the partisans actually did.

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The bottom shot is a US Red Cross recruiting poster. I don't know who the ladies pictured were modeled upon, but they certainly seem friendly. Hospital ships were everywhere during the war, clearly marked, but sometimes they were fired upon - hopefully by mistake.

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Anne Roebuck.
Since I showed some nurse posters, I might as well show an actual nurse or two. Here, US Army Nurse Corps Captain Anne Roebuck receives the Bronze Star for valor from a 1st Army Surgeon in Belgium, 18 November 1944. You can see how much it means to her.

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Jane Kendeigh (US Marine Corps photo).
Of course, women in many countries were on battlefields, either as soldiers or simply because the war rolled over them. Women also, on occasion, were sent to battlefields with the US armed forces. Navy Ensign Jane Kendeigh was the first flight nurse to arrive on Iwo Jima while the battle was still raging. The men greatly appreciated her presence.

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Sergeant Evdokia Motina.
Sniper Evdokia Motina served in the 21st Guards Rifle Division. She was another of the pert Soviet snipers of World War II who had no compunctions about killing fascists. Evdokia served during the Nevel Offensive of 1943 which punched a hole through the northern section of the line which annoyed Hitler. She won the Order of the Red Banner, which she displays in the above photo from 1944.

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Ukrainian Girls.
This obviously is a propaganda shot taken during Operation Barbarossa. These Ukrainian girls are helping this young soldier out. This kind of scene was quite common across Europe. The Wehrmacht was seen as liberating countries - at least by some, at first.

Warsaw holocaust
Warsaw, Poland, April 19, 1943.
Warsaw holocaust

The Holocaust affected so many lives and ended many as well. Jews, Catholic Poles, dissenters, and others were rounded up, sent to camps, and usually liquidated. The mistreatment of women, of course, extended far beyond just those who lost their lives at places like Ravensbruck. This is one area where women and men went through identical experiences. If you want more on this vast topic, you can visit my page here.

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WASP pilot Elizabeth Gardner.
Elizabeth Gardner ferried planes in Texas. Other than that... she had a pretty smile. Women were very important in freeing men for the front by taking on these mundane tasks.

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A Soviet sniper team in an obvious propaganda pose. For one thing, snipers usually hide in blinds or else they are spotted and get return fire, so sitting up like that is a huge no-no. However, this was for media consumption, and in that sense, this really works. Super quality - for some reason, Soviet photos of sniper girls are top-notch.
There were so many Soviet sniper girls that they deserve special attention.

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US War Correspondents.
I did not know who these women were when I posted this photo. However, a helpful contributor in a comment below dug up a similar photo that identifies them as correspondents accredited by the US Army: Mary Welsh, Dixie Tighe, Kathleen Harriman, Helen Kirkpatrick, Lee Miller, and Tania Long.

These women were the first female correspondents sent over after the invasion of Normandy. They were not wallflowers, and they did good work. They took some classic photographs of ruined French cities and went as close to the front lines as the authorities would allow. Several - or all - of them chafed at the restrictions placed upon them and wanted to do just what the male correspondents did. Some suffered from Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) long after the war was over.

One also can imagine the effect these ladies had on the boys at the front when they came to visit.

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Polish partisan girl.
Even when you are a partisan fighting for your life during the Warsaw uprising in 1944, as is the woman above, there always is time to make yourself presentable. If you are going to die... go down with class.

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Florence “Woo Woo” DiTullio Joyce, aka “Winnie the Welder.”

pretty girls Polish nurse

Above, a Polish nurse captured during the German invasion of Poland in 1939.

pretty girls Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Dougherty.
These two shots above are of female factory workers during the war. They were picked out from their colleagues for Army promotional shots to help the war effort. They were not models or actresses, and nobody had heard of them before. The lady on the bottom, Marilyn Dougherty, became famous in later years in another profession and you may recognize her. However, for our purposes, Marilyn is just another ordinary factory worker in Burbank. The lady on the top did not become famous and you won't recognize her, but she helped the war effort just like so many other anonymous women workers on the home front.

pretty girls Sigrid Schultz
Sigrid Schultz at a party with Joseph Goebbels and William Dodd.
Sigrid Schultz was a correspondent for the Chicago Tribune who was hired shortly after World War I. She became the Tribune's chief for Central Europe in 1926. She met Hermann Goering around then when he was still just an itinerant former Great War hero. This put her in a unique position to observe the Hitler movement from well before it came to power, and at times he served as her protector (Goering did that for several people of dubious repute in the Third Reich, actually, he was a complex man). Schultz also befriended and helped other top war correspondents such as William L. Shirer.

Sigrid was able to handle herself in polite society and most importantly spoke German fluently, so she had access to top government men throughout the pre-war period because they were fascinated by Americans. She wrote under the pseudonym "John Dickson" because people like Joseph Goebbels would not have appreciated her acting as a spy for the US public. Disguising her despatches to hide her identity, she provided early evidence of unsavory German war practices (most significantly the persecution of Jews) that later would become notorious.

After several incidents which read as though they are lifted from a spy novel, having literally risked her life for a long period of time, Sigrid returned to the US in March 1941 when she developed typhus. She only returned to Europe with the D-Day landing forces. Sigrid Schultz then provided valuable reports from the death camps and Nuremberg trials. She passed away in 1980 after writing several books about her experiences.

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Soviet trooper, Berlin, 1945.
I don't have any information on this Soviet soldier who was in Berlin right after the city's fall in 1945. However, like many Red Army ladies, she had the Right Stuff.

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French collaborator girl.
I have an entire article on Collaborator Girls so I will direct you there for more pictures of them. However, this particular shot stands out to me as showing why so many Wehrmacht men sought out a Paris billet.

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An SOE agent, Philip Worrall, OBE, on assignment in the Greek mountains. With him are two of his contacts in the field.
Women were in the forests, in the cities, in the mountains, providing essential contacts and support. Above, an SOE agent blends in with his friendly female operatives.

US homefront pretty girls

Of course, many women were at home, raising the kids and dealing with ration books, little variety at the store, aging cars they didn't know how to maintain, and massive inconveniences. If their husbands in the military sent home their pay, a soldier's salary didn't go far. There was little news about their men amidst a seemingly endless war.

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Another BDM girl with a very modern look to her. You could easily picture her in a prep school in the '60s or '70s. Heck, she wouldn't look too out of place now without the BDM regalia.

Lost German Girl Lost German Girl

Filmmaker Captain Oren William Haglund was in Pilsen with advancing US troops - who advanced no further - in May 1945 when he drove up the highway a few miles and shot a couple of minutes of a film featuring a female German refugee. That precise stretch of road has been identified, btw, there are many people interested in her case. She has become known to students of the war as the "Lost German Girl." Nobody knows who she was for sure, but there is an unproven claim that she was a BDM girl who volunteered to become a Luftwaffe Helferin after her boyfriend was drafted and was assigned to Prague. According to this source, her name was Lara Bauer from Austria. Caught up in the "Czech Hell" of the last days of the war, she was savagely beaten just before Haglund found her (saving her life). According to an anonymous account, Haglund saved her from being gang-raped in a barn when he stopped to ask directions, then took her along with him. Haglund then filmed the famous clip (the stills above were taken from it) which eventually made it into the final episode of "The World at War." If the anonymous source is correct, she made it back to Munich (Haglund's reel shows her leaving on a truck) and lived a long life. According to this story, Lara was born in 1921 in Kollerbach, Austria, became a GI bride, moved to the US, and worked as a flight attendant for Pan-Am airlines during the 60s/70s/80s. Haglund and the girl never met again, though her family apparently visited his grave in California. Lost German Girl (LGG) has come to symbolize the horrors of the end of the war for many.