Saturday, May 6, 2017

Stauffenberg and the 20 July Bomb Plot


20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Hitler von Stauffenberg
Claus von Stauffenberg, far left, and his intended target - Adolf Hitler.

The famous July 1944 attempt to kill Adolf Hitler at his "Wolfsschanze" headquarters near Rastenburg (Ketrzyn) in East Prussia goes by various names: the 20 July Plot, the July 1944 Putsch, the Attentat, and Operation Valkyrie are terms often used to identify the event. "Valkyrie," used as the title of a 2008 Tom Cruise film about the event, actually refers to a standing operations plan issued to the Territorial Reserve Army of Germany to impose control following a general breakdown in civil order of the nation. Thus, it does not refer to the bomb plot itself, but rather to events contemplated for the aftermath.

As everyone familiar with the basic course of World War II knows, the 20 July Bomb Plot failed. However, it came within a whisker succeeding. Many now view the attempt to assassinate Hitler as one of the shining moments for Germany of the entire war, so it is well worth reviewing.

Let's take a look at the plot, its origination, and why it failed.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com General Ludwig Beck
Colonel General Ludwig Beck, the godfather of the plots to kill Hitler. (Deutsches Bundesarchiv (German Federal Archive), Bild 183-C13564).

Origins of the Plot


Opposition to Hitler within the highest reaches of the Wehrmacht began well before the invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939. The Chief of the General Staff, Colonel General Ludwig Beck, deeply opposed Hitler's strategy of aggression and intimidation and engaged in various acts of defiance. For instance, he flatly refused to draw up plans for an invasion of Austria ("Fall Otto," or Case Otto), but later fell in line when he realized that Austria would not oppose the Anschluss. He also opposed the invasion of Czechoslovakia, writing several memoranda arguing that Germany was not yet strong enough to embark on any military campaigns. He went so far as to write a memo dated 29 July 1938 in which he argued that the Wehrmacht needed to prepare "for an internal conflict which need only take place in Berlin." This led to a 10 August 1938 meeting at which the other generals supported Hitler, so Beck resigned on 18 August 1938. From that point forward, he was at the heart of a conspiracy to replace Hitler.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Carl Goerdeler
Carl Friedrich Goerdeler. Slated to be the new chancellor in a post-Hitler government, he instead was executed on 2 February 1945.

After Beck's resignation, the anti-Hitler faction retreated into the shadows. Several different opponents to the regime gradually coalesced into a shadowy organization over time. Reich Price Commissioner and former Oberbürgermeister (Mayor) of Leipzig Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, who knew Beck, added a host of other important names to the evolving conspiracy. These included Ulrich von Hassell, Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, Johannes Popitz and Chief of Staff of Army Group Center Henning von Tresckow. As the war progressed, many illustrious names were added to the roster, including senior military leaders such as Field Marshals Günther von Kluge and Erwin Rommel. One problem was that everyone had their own quibbles and requirements for action. Rommel, for instance, would only participate if Beck became the new national leader. Von Kluge famously replied to a request to participate, "Ja – wenn das Schwein tot wäre!" ("Yes – if the pig were dead!). The conspirators wanted Hitler dead, but they were not so eager to do the deed themselves. Conspirators made several feeble attempts to assassinate Hitler that came to nothing, and it became clear that they needed a man of action to actually pull it off.


Von Stauffenberg and the 20 July Bomb Plot

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Claus von Stauffenberg
Claus von Stauffenberg.

Lieutenant Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg was a man of action. He had been badly injured in Tunisia on 7 April 1943 during a strafing attack by US P-40 Kittyhawk fighter-bombers and repatriated. The deteriorating course of the war convinced him that Hitler needed to be removed from power. Conspirator General Friedrich Olbricht brought von Stauffenberg into the plot, and things immediately began to happen. Several attempts to kill Hitler were launched, but they all failed for one reason or another. For instance, Henning von Tresckow arranged to plant a bomb on Hitler's personal Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor that was designed to detonate once the plane reached cruising altitude - it simply failed to go off. Another time, an assassin was waiting for Hitler during a uniforms display at Schloss Klessheim near Salzburg, but Hitler sped through the event before the attempt could be made. In all, fifteen known assassination attempts were made against Hitler, but none came close to succeeding. Nobody seemed capable of actually pulling the trigger in Hitler's presence.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Hitler Goering Himmler Keitel
Claus von Stauffenberg originally intended to kill not only Adolf Hitler, but also Hermann Goering and Heinrich Himmler. Here, Hitler is shown with Goering, Himmler, and chief of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel on Hitler's 20 April 1941 birthday.

Time was passing without results, and Germany's military position was deteriorating rapidly. Von Stauffenberg finally realized that, if you wanted a job done right, you had to do it yourself. He had regular access to Hitler due to his position on the staff of the Ersatzheer ("Replacement Army"), a key part of Operation Valkyrie (which Hitler endorsed). Originally, von Stauffenberg also wanted to kill second-in-command Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering, Reichsfuehrer-SS Heinrich Himmler and Hitler at the same time, but the timing never jelled. Von Stauffenberg himself made an attempt at Berchtesgaden on 11 July 1944, but aborted the attempt at the last minute because Himmler was absent.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Claus von Stauffenberg
Claus von Stauffenberg.

At last, von Stauffenberg decided to go through with the assassination attempt against Hitler regardless of whether Himmler and/or Goering also were present In the event, neither were. On 20 July 1944, von Stauffenberg attended a briefing at Hitler's East Prussian headquarters carrying two bombs hidden in his briefcase. Once again, something went awry - the briefing was moved at the last minute from the basement Führerbunker to Albert Speer's wooden barrack/hut because the Führerbunker had just been painted and it was a very hot day. This change would minimize the effect of the bombs' concussion, making the effect uncertain. Von Stauffenberg also was able to arm only one of the bombs, further weakening the effect. However, he was a man of action, and he decided once and for all to follow through.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com diagram 20 July 1944 bomb plot
A diagram of the position of the bomb and the conference participants. Those who perished were on the wrong side of the solid-oak table leg. It shielded the intended target, Hitler.

Von Stauffenberg entered the conference room as usual and placed the briefcase containing the armed bomb under the heavy wooden map table. He then left the room on the pretext of taking a phone call from Berlin. In his absence, one of the attendees, Colonel Heinz Brandt, moved the briefcase away from Hitler and behind one of the table supports. The bomb went off, killing four people and badly wounding several others - but Hitler miraculously survived with relatively light injuries.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Hermann Goering
Hermann Goering rushed over to inspect the damage.

Out of communications while flying back to Berlin, von Stauffenberg did not realize that Hitler had survived the bomb blast. He quickly drove to the Bendlerstrasse where he had his headquarters to organize the follow-up to the assassination. A poorly conceived plan to take over the reins of power was placed in motion emanating from the Bendlerstrasse offices. A few half-hearted moves were made to seize power, notably in Paris by Military Governor of France General of the Infantry Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel. Hitler, however, quickly phoned Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, who went on the radio and broadcast news of the assassination attempt - including the key fact that Hitler had survived. Co-conspirator General Friedrich Fromm, Commander-in-Chief of the Replacement Army and present in the Bendlerblock (Headquarters of the Army), then quickly changed sides. He had his men take the Stauffenberg and the rest into custody after a brief struggle.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com General Fromm Albert Speer Admiral Doenitz
From left to right: General Fromm, two navy NCOs, Minister of Armaments Albert Speer (suspected of being among the conspirators, but cleared), Hitler's successor Admiral Karl Doenitz, and captain Kehrl, head of Planning Dept, Ministry of Armaments.(Will Ruge, Federal Archive).

To cover up his own complicity, General Fromm had his soldiers summarily execute Stauffenberg and his co-conspirators in the building's courtyard that evening. Fromm's change of heart ultimately did not save him - he was exposed and executed - but after that, Hitler was more firmly in power than ever. He immediately instituted a purge that claimed the lives of Beck (who shot himself under duress), Rommel (took poison at home under duress), von Kluge (took poison while flying back to Berlin to face certain arrest), and many others.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Roland Freisler People's Court
One of the minor conspirators, farmer and agricultural contractor Carl Wentzel, appears before the "People's Court" headed by Roland Freisler (partially visible) during the aftermath of the 20 July Bomb Plot. Wentzel was executed on 20 December 1944 (Bundesarchiv, Bild 151-53-30A / CC-BY-SA 3.0).

Aftermath


Hitler sent his shredded clothes home to sweetheart Eva Braun at the Berghof. Why he did so is unclear, but US Army soldiers found them in her trunk there after the war.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Hitler's uniform


The photos show a few things that might not be obvious without close inspection. For instance, there is blood on Hitler's jacket which is difficult to make out in the black-and-white photographs - it is the four little vertical stripes at the bottom. Whether it is Hitler's blood, or that of a person near him, is uncertain - but the US Army men who retrieved the items thought it was his.


20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Hitler's uniform


It is apparent from the condition of Hitler's clothes that the bomb did indeed detonate as expected under the conference table. They show that Hitler's legs took the full force of the explosion, but his torso was spared.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Hitler's uniform
A member of the US Army with Hitler's clothes and shoes that he was wearing during the 20 July Bomb Plot.

The intervening table support leg and the solid oak tabletop absorbed and deflected just enough of the blast to save Hitler's life.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Hitler Mussolini
Acting as if the assassination attempt had been nothing but a nuisance, Hitler kept his appointment to greet Mussolini at the train station shortly afterwards.

How Hitler was able to stand immediately afterwards is a mystery, but he was on his feet literally within minutes as shown in newsreel footage. He must have been in great pain, but he did not show any of it and appeared positively cheerful.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Hitler Mussolini
Hitler and Mussolini inspect the damage only hours later. Mussolini's interpreter Dr. Paul Schmidt stands behind the two leaders (Bundesarchiv, Bild 146-1970-097-76 / CC-BY-SA).

Hitler gave Mussolini a personal tour of the blast site.

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Hitler Mussolini
Hitler and Mussolini view the wreckage.

As Mussolini sped away in his train afterward, he is said to have muttered to an aide, "Now we are not alone in betrayals."

20 July 1944 Bomb plot worldwartwo.filminspector.com Hitler
Hitler visited some of the badly injured men from the bomb blast later at the hospital.

Speculation overseas was that Hitler might not have survived the blast at all, or was badly injured and succumbed soon after from his injuries. It is known that Hitler had doubles - a deceased double was left outside the Berlin Chancellery bunker in May 1945 for purposes unknown (there is a lot of speculation why the Germans would do that). However, the rapidity with which Hitler reappeared in public for the newsreels seems to refute the idea that Hitler perished in the explosion and was replaced as a figurehead by someone else. Many now view the 20 July Bomb Plot as salvaging some honor for both Germany and the military.



2017

Monday, May 1, 2017

Horses in World War II



Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com
Horses were extremely important within the Wehrmacht.

There seems to be a misconception in some quarters that World War II was the first purely mechanized war, and that horses were entirely superfluous to the course of events.

Nothing could be further from the truth.

Horses in fact were incredibly important to the course of world War II, from the first day almost to the last. Many have heard the tales about Polish cavalry charging against advancing panzers during the Battle of Poland in 1939, but the story of horses during World War II goes much deeper than that. Let's look at a few key uses of horses during World War II.


1939: Polish Charge of Krojanty


We've all heard the legends about how the Polish cavalry made futile charges against the panzers and got slaughtered. This has become a point of pride for the Polish, who deeply resent the idea that they were completely powerless against the advancing Wehrmacht.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com Der Pimpf
"Der Pimpf" - this is a Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend) publication portraying the panzers sweeping across the hapless Poles and their cavalry.

Well, embarrassing as it may be for the Poles, it did happen. There's plenty of embarrassment to go around during the war years, so it's nothing to be ashamed of. In fact, the futile advance of the Polish cavalry is nothing to be ashamed about at all. In fact, it is kind of glorious in a romantic, lost-cause sort of way.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com Polish cavalry
Polish cavalry in September 1939. Exactly where and when is unclear. Some sources say this was taken during fighting in Sochaczew.

The incident known as the charge at Krojanty happened right at the outset of World War II, on 1 September 1939. The village of Krojanty is located near Lake Charzykowskie and the Tuchola forest. The charge at Krojanty is part of the larger Battle of Tuchola Forest. There is all sorts of myth and legend, truth and falsehood, about this incident. Let's just get the facts out quickly, without a lot of weaving around.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com German troops
Summer 1941 (Buschel, Federal Archive).

The German 76th Infantry Regement (Colonel Hans Gollnick) of 20th Motorised Division (Lt. Gen. Mauritz von Wiktorin), all part of the left (northern) flank of XIX Panzer Corps (Gen. Heinz Guderian), was advancing across the Danzig (Gdansk) Corridor in Pomerania. This was a stretch of Poland that the Germans deeply felt they deserved, having been taken from them pursuant to the treaties ending World War I. The Wehrmacht had men in Danzig in plainclothes just waiting for the invasion, and those men already had sprung into action. They needed to be relieved, or it would be a major embarrassment for the Third Reich. Thus, General Guderian had multiple reasons to get to Danzig, and fast.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com German troops
Wehrmacht soldiers leading their horses across the Vistula/Weichsel River bridge (Federal Archives).

The Poles had a defensive line of sorts at the river Brda (Brahe). The advancing Germans reached a railway line near the Tuchola Forest heath (grasslands) and took Chojnice (Konitz). During the late afternoon, the Germans apparently stopped to eat just beyond there - imagine the tension they had been under all night long, with the invasion looming, and then fighting against the Polish border forces - and the Poles saw an opportunity to attack.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com Scherer Panzerspahwagen
A typical Schwerer Panzerspähwagen (6 Rad Sd.Kfz. 231). See video below.

At about 17:00, the Poles charged. Eugeniusz Świeściak led about 250 men of his 1st Squadron of the 18th Pomeranian Uhlans against the resting German infantry. The Poles sent the bemused Germans running for the nearby woods. What the Poles didn't count on, however, was nearby German armor. The Wehrmacht vehicles swept across the heath and sent the Poles reeling under heavy .20 mm machine gun fire from Schwerer Panzerspähwagen (armored cars). Świeściak perished, as did his commander, Colonel Kazimierz Mastalerz, who had ordered Świeściak and his men to make the charge. The Poles suffered huge casualties.



As is always the case in such situations, some make the argument that the attack "bought some time for other Polish units to withdraw." Well, the Germans weren't advancing at the time and probably would have bivouacked in the vicinity for the night anyway, so that is perhaps a bit of rationalization. General Guderian, who led from the front, soon heard about the incident and told his men to forget about Polish cavalry and get moving again toward Danzig. Axis war correspondents quickly seized on the incident, which did feature a lot of dead horses and Polish soldiers to support the notion that the Poles rode horses against tanks. The cavalry did wind up engaging German armor, so that part is true, but not (apparently) intentionally.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com Polish troop equipment
Polish helmets piled up after the charge at Krojanty.

There were other incidents during the Polish campaign of a somewhat similar nature, but the charge at Krojanty is the one that began the tales of Polish cavalry jousting with panzers.

Operation Barbarossa


My main source for this section is "Moscow to Stalingrad: Decision in the East," Earl F. Ziemke and Magna Bauer (Military Heritage Press 1985).

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com German troops
Feeding the horses was a daily ritual. Unfortunately for the horses, their food supply became almost exclusively hay as the Operation Barbarossa campaign progressed, and not enough of that, either.

The Germans opened Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, with 600,000 motor vehicles and 625,000 horses. That the number of horses was larger than the number of vehicles was no surprise, because the Wehrmacht had been rearming for less than a decade and had not had time to assemble a larger fleet of purpose-built vehicles. In fact, transportation issues were one of the the Wehrmacht's biggest issues throughout the conflict. Horses were particularly valuable because they don't need oil and gasoline, both in perpetually short supply within Germany (and one of the main reasons why they began the war in the first place, though there are various theories on that).

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com German troops
A German soldier with a horse and Heer (army) wagon.

The campaign took a huge toll on horses. A 19 March 1942 OKW (German military high command) report found that 179,000 horses had perished by that point, with only 20,000 replacements. That brought the total number of horses well below half a million. The situation became so acute that the military had to requisition 250,000 horses from Occupied Europe. The situation was made worse because civilian motor vehicles built for paved roads and plentiful servicing were breaking down not just from use in Russia and the intense climate there, but from the trip to get there (only about a quarter of those sent east actually made it to where they were needed). In addition, horses bred for other purposes were not as powerful as those bred for military work.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com German troops
A German officer on 21 June 1942. The location is unknown, but a favored military expression was that you would fight until you see your horse drink from the enemy's home river (Ang, Federal Archive).

The main source of German supply throughout the conflict was by railroad. Horse-drawn vehicles were essential to deliver daily supplies to troops in the field. During the Soviet counteroffensive at Moscow, Hitler's use of stand-fast orders compelled men to sit in isolated positions without food supplies - except for their horses, which themselves were not being fed well. As the number of horses dwindled, the Wehrmacht was forced to fall back on its railheads. This made the railroads obvious targets for partisans. In fact, Soviet-led partisans also used horses for guerilla operations.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com German troops
German cavalry soldiers showing how to use their mounts as gun platforms.

There were only two active cavalry units in the Wehrmacht (aside from mountain troops which had units equipped with horses). One was the SS Cavalry Brigade (8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer). Its commander during Operation Barbarossa is well known to history, but for vastly different reasons than his command of a cavalry unit. He was Brigadefuehrer (Brigadier General) Otto Hermann Fegelein. Yes, the same Fegelein from the bunker in 1945. Fegelein was dating Hitler's mistress' (Eva Braun's) sister (they married in June 1944, just days before D-Day). The SS Cavalry Brigade, however, was just a showpiece - it was never intended for combat. But, it turns out, it was capable of fighting, or at least skirmishing.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com SS Cavalry
Men of the SS Cavalry Brigade (Federal Archive, Bundesarchiv Bild 101III-Adendorff-002-18A).

Fegelein loved horses, but wasn't much of a commander. However, he had to lead his troops in an attack to save Rhez, a vital German strongpoint at the end of a railway, in January 1945. Fegelein obligingly led his men into the whirlwind, and fought the Soviets so hard that his men ran out of ammunition and had to pull back. Their mission was a success: Germans held Rzhev, thought that likely was due more to a sudden blizzard than anything the cavalry did

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com German mountain troops
The original caption of this photo was "Übermantel und pferd" (wintercoat and horse). Apparently, the soldier is in the German mountain troops ("Gebirgsjäger").

The SS Cavalry Brigade remained on the Eastern Front throughout the war, as experience showed that it could come in handy in a crisis. It helped with anti-partisan activities, reconnaissance, helping with retreats (such as Operation Buffalo in early 1943 and the retreat to the Dnepr (Dneiper) River). It ultimately was engulfed with the Wehrmacht units trapped in Budapest in 1945.


1945: Battle of Schoenfeld



The Battle of Schoenfeld is not exactly a famous battle. Nobody ever is going to confuse it with the Battle of Stalingrad or anything like that. However, it does have one claim to fame: it featured the last horse cavalry charge in modern warfare.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com Polish cavalry troops
Polish cavalry ca. 1945.

By 1945, of course, the German Wehrmacht was in full retreat on all fronts. The Soviets were blasting into Pomerania, and the Germans were trying to hold the coast. Why the Germans were trying to hold the coast is a long story, but basically the Kriegsmarine, i.e., Admiral Doenitz, had told Hitler that Germany needed to retain the coast - the whole coast - in order to continue its operations. In addition, due to Hitler's stand-fast/fortress strategy, there remained a large concentration of German forces in Stettin (never mind Courland) who would be cut off by a Soviet advance to the coast. So, the Germans were in the odd situation of trying to prevent the Soviet force from advancing from south to north when Berlin and the heart of German were to the southwest. It didn't make sense to a lot of Wehrmacht commanders at the time, but that's where we enter the story.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com Polish cavalry
The Polish 1st Cavalry Brigade around the time of the Battle of Schoenfeld in March 1945.

The Soviets made liberal use of Polish troops at this stage of the war. The First Army of the Polish People's Army was advancing on the village of Schoenfeld/Borujsko/Żeńsko (everything in this part of the world has at least three names) and the Germans were tasked to stop them. Stettin is only about 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Schoenfeld, and every mile counted. The Germans had built, or at least conceptualized, three separate lines of fortifications in the area. Schoenfeld was on the last line.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com Hungarian troops
Hungarian soldiers near the village of Ivanovka Khokholsky in the Voronezh region, 1942 (Tamas Conoco Sr.).

The Germans in Schoenfeld did not know who was going to attack them, but they knew an attack was coming. On 1 March 1945, the 163rd Infantry Division under General Karl Rübel was dug in with anti-tank weapons on the outskirts of Schoenfeld waiting for the the usual assault infantry, perhaps supported by T-34s and larger Stalin tanks. The Polish 2nd Infantry Division under General Jan Rotkiewicz obliged and made the usual armor-plus-infantry advance on the village. The Germans repulsed this uncreative assault without too much trouble. However, next they got something that they weren't expecting: a cavalry charge by the 1st "Warsaw" Independent Cavalry Brigade under the command of Konstanty Gryżawski.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com German column
Marching somewhere in the Ukraine, probably retreating, 1942 ((Tamas Conoco Sr.).

General Gryżawski sent two squadrons of horse-mounted cavalry, supported by some horse-drawn artillery, through a ravine which the Germans rightly thought was impassable to vehicles and thus not much of a threat. However, the horses got through the ravine just fine. This enabled the Poles to achieve the element of surprise and roust the Germans from their forward antitank gun positions on the slope of a hill (Hill 157) in front of the town. Having taken this foothold, the Poles waited for the tanks and regular infantry to catch up, then charged into the town itself. By 17:00, the Germans were on the run to the north and the Poles had occupied the town. Total casualties were about 500 Germans, seven Polish mounted cavalry, 16 Polish tank soldiers, and 124 Polish infantry. The modern location is Żeńsko, Drawsko County, Poland. It was the final verified mounted cavalry charge of World War II (there may have been some by Polish cavalry during April, too, but little is known about that). It ended a glorious epoch of the horse as the queen of battle.

Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com US Coast Guard troops
The Allies used horses as well. Here are Coast Guard members patrolling a beach in New Jersey (Left to right: seamen first class C. R. Johnson, Jesse Willis, Joseph Washington, and Frank Garcia) (Archives.gov).

Conclusion


Horses were used extensively during World War II. Not only were they effective at hauling large loads for long distances, they did not use up scarce commodities like oil and rubber. They were particularly useful during operations in Eastern Europe, where roads were bad and often non-existent and hay relatively plentiful. While the other combatants all used horses to one extent or another, they were a major component of the Wehrmacht, which could not have operated effectively without them.


Horses in World War II worldwartwo.filminspector.com Soviet troops Caucasus
Soviet cavalry in the Caucasus. They could go where panzers could not.



2017